Contido principal do artigo

Clara Pinto
Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa
Portugal
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8104-1506
Biografía
Vol 12 (2020), Pescuda, páxinas 115-139
Recibido: 17-10-2019 Aceptado: 19-03-2020 Publicado: 30-07-2020
Copyright Como citar

Resumo

This paper presents the vernacular form caraças which, in European Portuguese (EP) is associated to multiple contexts, differents from its use as a feminine common noun. The data I will present shows that caraças behaves as a polarity item, without referential interpretation. On the one hand, caraçasbehaves as a minimizer, a subtype of Negative Polarity Item (NPI), being associated to the lowest point of a scale of value. On the other hand, it also behaves as a Positive Polarity Item (PPI), expressing maximal degrees, therefore being a maximizer. The fact that caraças occurs simultaneously as a NPI and a PPI could indicate we are in the presence of a bipolar element, as described by van der Wouden (1997). Nevertheless, data suggests that there are two distinct items caraças, one of them being a NPI and the other a PPI.

The form caraças is also associated to other contexts of use, namely as a metalinguistic negation marker and in evaluative constructions such as N-of-an-N constructions. We also find it functioning as an interjection in exclamative sentences.

Although the feminine common noun caraça (augmentative of cara ‘face’) remains in the lexicon as synonym of mask, the polarity item caraças does not result from a process of grammaticalization of the common noun, as documented for other polarity items. In this paper I will put forth the idea that caraças, in its masculine singular form, appeared as an euphemistic variant of caralho ‘dick’, a highly offensive taboo term, used to designate the masculine sexual organ.

Detalles do artigo

Citas

Alexiadou, Artemis / Liliane Haegeman & Melita Sravrou. 2007. Noun phrase in the generative perspective. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Amaral, Diana. 2009. Algumas construções-WH em português europeu: periferia esquerda e fases. Lisboa: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa. (Dissertação de mestrado).

Bennis, Hans / Norbert Corver & Marcel den Dikken.1998. Predication in nominal phrases. The journal of comparative germanic linguistics 1(2), 85-117. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009780124314

Bosque, Ignacio. 1996. La polaridad modal. In Actas del Cuarto congreso de hispanistas de Asia. 7-14. Seúl: Asociación Asiática de Hispanistas.

Brito, Ana Maria. 2003. Categorias sintácticas. In Maria Helena Mira Mateus / Ana Maria Brito / Inês Duarte & Isabel Hub Faria (orgs.), Gramática da língua portuguesa. 5ª edn. 393-475. Caminho: Lisboa.

CETEMPúblico = Santos Diana & P. Rocha. 2001. Evaluating CETEMPúblico, a free resource for Portuguese. In Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. 442-449. http://www.linguateca.pt/CETEMPublico/. (20/07/2019 and 25/02/2020).

Centro de Estudos de Teatro, Teatro de autores portugueses do Séc. XVII - Base de dados textual [on-line]. http://www.cet-e-seiscentos.com/

Corpus do Português (Web/Dialects) = Davies, Mark. 2016. Corpus do português: Web/Dialects. https://www.corpusdoportugues.org/web-dial/. (25/02/2020).

Dikken, Marcel den & Anastasia Giannakidou. 2002. From hell to polarity: ‘Agressively non-D-linked wh-phrases’ as polarity items. Linguistic Inquiry 33, 31-61. https://doi.org/10.1162/002438902317382170

Ferreira, Aurélio Buarque de Hollanda. 1986. Novo dicionário Aurélio da língua portuguesa. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. (2ª edição).

Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2011. Positive polarity items and negative polarity items: variation, licensing, and compositionality. I C. Maienborn / K. von Heusinger & P. Portner (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning. 1660-1712. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Gonzaga, Manuela. 1997. Aspectos da sintaxe do advérbio em português. Lisboa: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa. (Dissertação de Mestrado).

Hoeksema, Jack. 2001. Rapid change among expletive polarity items. In Laurel J. Brinton (ed.), Selected Papers from 14th International Conference on Historical Linguistics. Vancouver. 9-13 August 1999. 175-186. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.215.13hoe

Horn, Laurence. 1989. A natural history of negation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (2001 reissue; Stanford: CSLI Publications).

Houaiss, Antônio & Mauro de Salles Villar. 2002-2003. Dicionário Houaiss da língua portuguesa. 6 vols. Lisboa: Círculo de Leitores.

Israel, Michael. 2001. Minimizers, maximizers, and the rhetoric of scalar reasoning. Journal of semantics 18, 297-331. https://doi.org/10.1093/jos/18.4.297

Kayne, Richard. 1994. The antisymmetry of syntax. Cambridge / Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Machado, José Pedro. 1967. Dicionário etimológico da língua portuguesa. 2ª edn. Lisboa: Livros Horizonte.

Martins, Ana Maria. 2010. Negação metalinguística (lá, cá e agora). In Actas do XXV Encontro da APL. 67-587. Lisboa: APL.

Martins. Ana Maria. 2012. Deictic locatives, emphasis and metalinguistic negation. In Charlotte Galves / Sonia Cyrino / Ruth Lopes / Filomena Sandalo & Juanito Avelar (eds.), Diachronic Syntax: Parameter Theory and Dynamics of Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659203.003.0012

Marquilhas, Rita (Coord.) P.S. Post-Scriptum: Arquivo digital de escrita quotidiana em Portugal e Espanha na Época Moderna. Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa. http://ps.clul.ul.pt/

Matushansky, Ora. 2001. Obligatory scalarity (a sliding scale). In K. Megerdoomian & L. A. Bar-el (eds.), WCCFL 20 Proceedings, 400-413. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Napoli, Donna Jo & Jack Hoeksema. 2009. The grammatical versatility of taboo terms. Studies in language 33(3), 612-643. https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.33.3.04nap

Parry, Mair. 2013. Negation in the history of italo-romance. In D. Willis / Cristopher Lucas & Anne Breitbarth (eds.), The history of negation in the languages of Europe and the Mediterranean. Vol I. 77-118. Case Studies, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pinto, Clara. 2010. Negação metalinguística e estruturas com ‘nada’ em português europeu. Lisboa: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa. (Dissertação de mestrado).

Quirk, Randolph / Geoffrey Leech & Sidney Greenbaum. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London / New York: Longman.

Rhee, Seongha. 2016. On the emergence of stance-marking function of English adverbs: A case of intensifiers. Linguistic Research 33(3), 395-436. https://doi.org/10.17250/khisli.33.3.201612.003

Santos, José Rodrigues dos. 2005. O Codex 632. Gradiva: Lisboa.

Spector, Benjamim. 2012. Being simultaneously an NPI and a PPI: a bipolar item in French. Snippets 25, 21-22.

TMILG = Varela Barreiro, Xavier (dir.). 2004-. Tesouro medieval informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega. http://ilg.usc.es/tmilg

Tubau, Susagna. 2016. On the syntax of english minimizers. Natural language and linguistic theory 34(2),739-760. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-015-9308-6

Twitter = https://twitter.com/?lang=pt_pt

Vachek, J. 1990. A linguistic characterology of modern english. Praha: Státní pedagogické nakladatelství.

Willis, David. 2010. Motivating the emergence of new markers of sentential negation: the case of Welsh ddim. Diachronica 27(1), 110-156. https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.27.1.04wil

Willis, David. 2012. A minimalist approach to Jespersen’s Cycle in Welsh. In Dianne Jonas / John Whitman & Andrew Garrett (eds.), Grammatical change: Origins, natures, outcomes. 93-119. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wouden, Ton van der. 1997. Negative contexts. Collocation, polarity and multiple negation. London: Routledge.