Main Article Content

Edurne Magro
Orkestra-Instituto Vasco de Competitividad
Jesús M. Valdaliso
Universidad del País Vasco – Facultad de Economía y Empresa
Vol 28 No 2 (2019): Special Issue. Studies on regional innovation policies in the last two decades: from regional systems of innovation to intelligent specialization strategies, Articles, pages 53-70
Submitted: 12-07-2019 Accepted: 12-07-2019 Published: 12-09-2019
Copyright How to Cite


Regional resilience, which can be defined as the regional ability to resist, adapt to, and create new regional paths  from an economic crisis or external shocks, is one of the most explored issues in recent years in the literature of evolutionary economic geography. The latest advances in this topic show that resilience has a multi-dimensional character and among other factors, give importance to the role that institutions and people play. Public policies as important elements of the regional institutional context shape this ability to change. This paper focuses on understanding the relationship between innovation policy and regional resilience. For that purpose, the paper includes an historical analysis of the Basque Country region, an old industrial region that has been able to resist, recover and renew itself after different economic crises.


Cited by

Article Details


Aranguren, M. J., Magro, E., Navarro, M., e Valdaliso, J.M. (2012). Estrategias para la construcción de ventajas competitivas regionales. El caso del País Vasco. Madrid: Marcial Pons.

Aranguren, M. J., Magro, E. e Wilson, J. R. (2017). Regional competitiveness policy in an era of smart specialisation strategies. En R. Huggins e P. Thompson (Eds.), Handbook of regions and competitiveness. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar. Recuperado de

Baumgartner, F. R. (2013). Ideas and policy change. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 26(2), 239-258. DOI:

Birch, K., Mackinnon, D., e Cumbers, A. (2010). Old industrial regions in Europe: A comparative assessment of economic performance. Regional Studies, 44(1), 35-53. DOI:

Boschma, R. (2015). Towards and evolutionary perspective on regional resilience. Regional Studies, 49(5), 733-751. DOI:

Bristow, G., e Healy, A. (2014). Regional resilience: An agency perspective. Regional Studies, 48(5), 923-935. DOI:

Caja Laboral Popular (1987). Economía vasca 1975-1987. San Sebastián: Caja Laboral Popular.

Campbell, J. L. (2010). Institutional reproduction and change. En G. Morgan, J. L. Campbell, C. Crouch, O. K. Pedersen e R. Whitley (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of comparative institutional analysis. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. DOI:

Charron, N., e Lapuente, V. (2018). Quality of government in EU Regions: Spatial and temporal patterns. QOG The Quality of Government Institute, Working Paper Series 2018:2. Recuperado de

Cortinovis, N., Xiao, J., Boschma, R., e Van Oort, F. (2017). Quality of government and social capital as drivers of regional diversification in Europe. The Journal of Economic Geography, 17, 1179-1208. DOI:

Crescenzi, R., Luca, D., e Milio, S. (2016). The geography of the economic crisis in Europe: National macroeconomic conditions, regional structural factors and short-term economic performance”, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 9, 13-32. DOI:

Cuadrado, J. R., e Maroto, A. (2016). Unbalanced regional resilience to the economic crisis in Spain: A tale of specialisation and productivity. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 9, 153-178. DOI:

Cueto, M. B., Mayor, M., e Suárez, P. (2017). La resiliencia de las regiones españolas después de la gran recesión. Consejo Económico y Social del Principado de Asturias. Colección de estudios, 20. Oviedo: Consejo Económico y Social del Principado de Asturias. Recuperado de

Cruz-Castro, L., Holl, A., Rama, R., e Sanz-Menéndez, L. (2018). Economic crisis and company R&D in Spain: do regional and policy factors matter? Industry and Innovation, 25(8), 729-751. DOI:

David, L. (2018). Agency and resilience in the time of regional economic crisis”. European Planning Studies, 26(5), 1041-1059. DOI:

Elola, A., Parrilli, M. D., e Rabelloti, R. (2013). The resilience of clusters in the context of increasing globalization: The Basque wind energy value chain. European Planning Studies, 21(7), 989-1006. DOI:

Eraydin, A. (2016). The role of regional policies along with the external and endogenous factors in the resilience of regions, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 9(1), 217-234. DOI:

Eriksson, R. H., e Hane-Weijman, E. (2017). How do regional economies respond to crises? The geography of job creation and destruction in Sweden (1990–2010). European Urban and Regional Studies, 24(1), 87-103. DOI:

Etxabe, I. (2018). Measuring social capital in the Basque Country: An eclectic approach. (Ph D Thesis). University of the Basque Country.

Etxabe, I., e Valdaliso, J. M. (2016). Measuring structural social capital in a cluster policy network: Insights from the Basque Country. European Planning Studies, 24(5), 884-903. DOI:

Evenhuis, E. (2017). New directions in researching regional economic resilience and adaptation. Geography Compass, 11, 1-15. DOI:

Flanagan, K., e Uyarra, E. (2016). Four dangers in innovation policy studies –and how to avoid them–. Industry and Innovation, 23(2), 177-188. DOI:

Flanagan, K., Uyarra, E., e Laranja, M. (2011). Reconceptualising the ‘policy mix’ for innovation. Research Policy, 40 (5), 702-713. DOI:

Foray, D., Goddard, J., Goenaga, X., Landabaso, M., McCann, P., Morgan, K., Nauwelaers, C., e Ortega-Argilés, R. (2012): Guide to research and innovation strategies for smart specialization (RIS3). Luxembourg, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Recuperado de

Fuente, A. de la (2017). Series largas enlazadas de algunos agregados económicos regionales, 1955-2014. Parte I: Metodología, VAB, PIB y puestos de trabajo. BBVA Research, Documento de Trabajo 17/10. BBVA. Recuperado de

Gingrich, J. (2015). Varying costs to change? Institutional change in the public sector. Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 28(1), 41-60. DOI:

Gong, H., e Hassink, R. (2018). Co-evolution in contemporary economic geography: Towards a theoretical framework”, Regional Studies. DOI:

González-Bravo, M., López, S., e Valdaliso, J. M. (2018). Coping with economic crisis: Cluster associations and firm performance in the Basque Country. En F. Belussi e J. L. Hervás-Oliver (Eds.), Agglomeration and firm performance (pp. 245-262). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. DOI:

Grabher, G. (1993). The weakness of strong ties: The lock-in of regional development in the Ruhr area. En G. Grabher (Ed.), The embedded firm: On the socioeconomics of industrial networks (pp. 255-277). London, England: Routledge. DOI:

Grillitsch, M., e Sotarauta, M. (2018). Regional growth paths: From structure to agency and back. Papers in Innovation Studies, 2018/01). Lund, Sweden: Lund University, CIRCLE-Centre for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy. Recuperado de

Groenewegen, J., e Van Der Steen, M. (2007). The evolutionary policy maker. Journal of Economic Issues, 41(2), 351-358. DOI:

Henning, M. (2019). Time should tell (more): Evolutionary economic geography and the challenge from history. Regional Studies, 53(4), 602-613. DOI:

Henning, M., Stam, E., e Wenting, R. (2013). Path dependence research in regional economic development: cacophohy or knowledge accumulation? Regional Studies, 47(8), 1348-1362. DOI:

Holl, A., e Rama, R. (2016). Persistence of innovative activities in times of crisis: The case of the Basque Country. European Planning Studies, 24(10), 1863-1883. DOI:

Isaksen, A. (2015). Industrial development in thin regions: Trapped in path extension? Journal of Economic Geography, 15(3), 585-600. DOI:

Isaksen, A., e Jakobsen, S. (2017). New path development between innovation systems and individual actors. European Planning Studies, 25(3), 355-370. DOI:

Kakderi, C., e Tasopoulou, A. (2017). Regional economic resilience: The role of national and regional policies. European Planning Studies, 25(8), 1435-1453. DOI:

Karlsen, J. (2010). Complejidad regional y la necesidad de una gobernanza comprometida. Ekonomiaz, 74, 90-111. Recuperado de

Kay, A. (2006): The dynamics of public policy. Theory and evidence. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar.

Kiesse, M., e Hundt, C. (2014). Cluster policies, organising capacity and regional resilience: Evidence from german case studies. Raumforsch Raumordn, 72(2), 117-131. DOI:

Kingdon, J. W. (1984). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. Boston, MA: Little Brown.

Landabaso, M. (2012). “What public policies can and cannot do for regional development. En P. Cooke, M. D. Parrilli e J. L. Curbelo (Eds.), Innovation, global challenge, and territorial resilience. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar. DOI:

Lawton Smith, H., Trippl, M., Waters, R., e Zukauskaite, E. (2018). Policies for new path development: The case of Oxfordshire. En A. Isaksen, R. Martin e M. Trippl (Eds.), New avenues for regional innovation systems - Theoretical advances, empirical cases and policy lessons. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International. DOI:

López, S., Elola, A., Valdaliso, J. M., e Aranguren, M. J. (2008). Los orígenes históricos del clúster de la electronica, la informática y las telecomunicaciones del País Vasco y su legado para el presente. San Sebastián: Orkestra-Eusko Ikaskuntza.

López, S., Elola, A., Valdaliso, J. M., e Aranguren, M. J. (2012). El clúster de la industria aeronáutica y especial del País Vasco: orígenes, evolución y trayectoria competitiva. San Sebastián: Orkestra-Eusko Ikaskuntza. Recuperado de

Magro, E., Navarro, M., e Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, J. M. (2014). Coordination-Mix: The hidden face of STI policy. Review of Policy Research, 31(5), 367-389. DOI:

Magro, E., e Wilson, J. R. (2013). “Complex innovation policy systems: Towards an evaluation mix. Research Policy, 42(9), 1647-1656. DOI:

Mahoney, J., e Thelen, K. (2009). A theory of gradual institutional change. En J. Mahoney e K. Thelen (Eds.), Explaining institutional change. Ambiguity, agency, and power. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. DOI:

Martin, R. (2010). Rethinking regional path dependence: Beyond lock-in to evolution. Economic Geography, 86(1), 1-27. DOI:

Martin, R. (2012). Regional economic resilience, hysteresis and recessionary shocks. Journal of Economic Geography, 12(1) 1-32. DOI:

Martin, R., e Sunley, P. (2006). Path dependence and regional economic evolution. Journal of Economic Geography, 6(4), 395-437. DOI:

Martin, R., e Sunley, P. (2015). On the notion of regional economic resilience: Conceptualization and explanation. Journal of Economic Geography, 15(1), 1-42. DOI:

Martin, R., Sunley, P., Gardiner, B., e Tyler, P. (2016). How regions react to recessions: Resilience and the role of economic structure. Regional Studies, 50(4), 561-585. DOI:

Morgan, K. (2016). Collective entrepreneurship: The basque model of innovation. European Planning Studies, 24(8), 1544-1560. DOI:

Nauwelaers, C., e Wintjes, R. (2008). Innovation policy, innovation in policy: Policy learning within and across systems and clusters. En C. Nauwelaers e R. Wijtnes (Eds.), Innovation policy in Europe: measurement and strategy. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar. DOI:

Navarro, M. (2015a). El clúster de biociencias de la CAPV. En Orkestra: Cuadernos del Informe de Competitividad del País Vasco 2015, 3 (Sectores y clústeres), 73-95. Bilbao: Deusto.

Navarro, M. (2015b). Las estrategias territoriales para la transformación productiva. Reflexión desde el caso del País Vasco. Icade. Revista de las Facultades de Derecho y Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, 96, 75-104. DOI:

Navarro, M., Valdaliso, J. M.. Aranguren, M. J., e Magro, E. (2014). A holistic approach to regional strategies: The case of the Basque Country. Science and Public Policy, 41(4), 532-547. DOI:

Neffke, F., Henning, M., e Boschma, R. (2011). How do regions diversify over time? Industry relatedness and the development of new growth paths in regions. Economic Geography, 87(3), 237-265. DOI:

OECD. (2011): OECD reviews of regional innovation: Basque Country, Spain. Paris, France: OECD.

Orkestra. (2015): Cuadernos del Informe de Competitividad del País Vasco 2015, 5 (Estrategias y políticas). Bilbao: Deusto.

Rogge, K. S., e Reichardt, K. (2016). Policy mixes for sustainability transitions: An Extended concept and framework for analysis. Research Policy, 45(8), 1620-1635. DOI:

Sotarauta, M. (2017). An actor-centric bottom-up view of institutions: Combinatorial knowledge dynamics through the eyes of institutional entrepreneurs and institutional navigators. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, 35(4), 584-599. DOI:

Streeck, W., e Thelen, K. (2005). Beyond continuity: Institutional change in advanced political economies. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Uyarra, E., Flanagan, K., Magro, E., Wilson, J. R., e Sotarauta, M. (2017). Understanding regional innovation policy dynamics: Actors, agency and learning. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, 35(4), 559-568. DOI:

Uyarra, E. e Ramlogan, R. (2012). Cluster policy: A review of the evidence. Report of the Compendium of Evidence on the effectiveness of innovation policy intervention. London, England: NESTA.

Valdaliso, J. M. (2015). The Basque Country. Past trajectory and path dependency in policy- and strategy-making. En J. M. Valdaliso e J. R. Wilson (Eds.), Strategies for shaping territorial competitiveness. London, England: Routledge. DOI:

Valdaliso, J. M. (2018). Accounting for the resilience of the machine tool industry in Spain (c. 1960-2015). Business History. DOI:

Valdaliso, J. M., Elola, A., e Franco, S. (2016). Do clusters follow the industry life cycle? Diversity of cluster evolution in old industrial regions. Competitiveness Review, 26(1), 66-86. DOI:

Valdaliso, J. M., Magro, E., Navarro, M., Aranguren, M. J., e Wilson, J.R. (2014). Path dependence in policies supporting smart specialization strategies. European Journal of Innovation Management, 17(4), 390-408. DOI:

Valdaliso, J. M., e Wilson, J.R. (2015). Where next for territorial strategy? Concluding remarks and a call to arms. En J. M. Valdaliso e J. R. Wilson (EdS.), Strategies for shaping territorial competitiveness. London, England: Routledge. DOI:

Webber, D. J., Healy, A., e Bristow, G. (2018). Regional growth paths and resilience: A european analysis. Economic Geography, 98(4), 355-375. DOI:

Witt, U. (2003). Economic policy making in evolutionary perspective. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 13, 77- -94. DOI: