Revista Galega de Economía https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge <p><em>Revista Galega de Economía </em>is a half-yearly published journal founded in 1992. It is promoted by the Faculty of Economics and Business&nbsp;Administration&nbsp;of the University&nbsp;of&nbsp;Santiago de Compostela.&nbsp;It publishes original&nbsp;papers related to the fields of economics, business administration and management, and social sciences, and it is addressed to the national and international scientific and academic community, as well as to all the professionals of those three fields of economy, business administration and management, and social sciences.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><em><em>Revista Galega de Economía</em> </em></em>is indexed in <a href="https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/26283?origin=resultslist">SCOPUS</a>, <a href="https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/revista?codigo=1981">Dialnet</a>, <a href="http://epuc.cchs.csic.es/dice/revista.php?rev=1132-2799">InDICEs-CSIC</a>, <a href="https://ideas.repec.org/s/sdo/regaec.html">IDEAS-RePEc</a>, <a href="https://www.redalyc.org/revista.oa?id=391">REDALYC</a>,&nbsp;<a title="REDIB" href="https://revistas.redib.org/?lng=es" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2255-5951?source=%7B%22query%22%3A%7B%22filtered%22%3A%7B%22filter%22%3A%7B%22bool%22%3A%7B%22must%22%3A%5B%7B%22terms%22%3A%7B%22index.issn.exact%22%3A%5B%221132-2799%22%2C%222255-5951%22%5D%7D%7D%2C%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22_type%22%3A%22article%22%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%2C%22query%22%3A%7B%22match_all%22%3A%7B%7D%7D%7D%7D%2C%22size%22%3A100%2C%22_source%22%3A%7B%7D%7D">DOAJ </a>and EconIS, among others. It is also is included in different tools for the analysis of scientific journals such as <a href="http://miar.ub.edu/issn/1132-2799">MIAR</a>, <a href="http://epuc.cchs.csic.es/dice/revista.php?rev=1132-2799">DICE</a>, <a href="https://www.latindex.org/latindex/ficha?folio=28782">Latindex</a> or <a href="https://clasificacioncirc.es/ficha_revista?id=140881">CIRC</a>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The digital portal of<em><em> <em>Revista Galega de Economía </em></em></em>is published in Galician, Spanish, and English. The languages of publicaction are Galician, Portuguese, Spanish, and English.<em>&nbsp;</em></p> Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Servizo de Publicacións e Intercambio Científico en-US Revista Galega de Economía 1132-2799 <p>From 2019 papers and articles published in this journal are subject to the following terms:&nbsp;</p> <p>1. The University of Santiago de Compostela retains the patrimonial rights (copyright) of articles published, and encourages and enables reuse of the same under the license specified in point 2.</p> <p>2. Articles are published in the online edition of the journal under a <a title="License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_self">License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</a>. All papers can be copied, used, disseminated, transmitted and publicly displayed, provided acknowledgment of authorship, the URL, and the journal are mentioned and that the materials are not used for commercial purposes.</p> <p>3. All authors agree with the license used by the journal with the conditions of self-archiving and open access policy.</p> <p>4. Authors are allowed to disseminate electronically (e.g. in institutional repositories or on their own websites) the published version of their manuscripts, as these favours circulation and early diffusion and thus possibly increases the citations and scope among the academic community (See <a title="The Effect of Open Access" href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_self">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> <p>Before this year, when publishing in Revista Galega de Economía, the author cedes all the exploitation rights of his/her article to the University of Santiago de Compostela which, under the conditions and within the restrictions stated in the legislation on intellectual property, is the copyright holder. The fact of its holding the copyright grants the University of Santiago de Compostela&nbsp; the exclusive right, worldwide, to:</p> <ul> <li class="show"> <p>publish the article’s final version in the journal, and distribute it and/or communicate it publicly, both in the journal itself and in other related media, in print format, digital format or any other format that can be created in the future;</p> </li> <li class="show"> <p>translate or write abstracts of the article, and distribute them and/or communicate them publicly, and authorize a third party for the same right or transfer the same right to a third party;</p> </li> <li class="show"> <p>deposit copies or references of the article in file-stores on line, both in platforms belonging to the University of Santiago de Compostela and in platforms belonging to a third party which has received the corresponding authorization by the University of Santiago de Compostela.</p> </li> </ul> Socio-economic challenges of demographic change https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/7177 Melchor Fernández Fernández María-Celia López-Penabad Ana Iglesias Casal Copyright (c) 2020 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela http://www.usc.es/revistas/index.php/rge/about/submissions#copyrightNotice 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 3 Intergenerational solidarity and informal care: The perceptions of digital natives. Case study of the municipality of Setúbal (Portugal) https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/6874 <p>Using the Conceptual Model of the Social Study of Ageing Processes, this research aims to analyze the perceptions of digital natives of solidarity and intergenerational ambivalence on ADLs, demonstrating the influence of intergenerational cohesion in informal care. The methodology develops a mixed, quantitative (N = 993) and qualitative approach, Focus Group (N = 24), applied between 2017 and 2018 to students of the 12th year of schooling in secondary schools in the municipality of Setúbal, Portugal. The results show greater perception in females (50.7%) and in young people aged 16 (58.5%). The highest perception is registered in the degree of autonomy of grandparents (49.4%), the lowest being available to care for the elderly<br>(53.1%). Structural Solidarity is the dimension that presents higher values of perception in the analysis of the content of the narratives. The study concludes that intergenerational solidarity and ambivalence influence young people's perception of Informal Care.</p> Paulo Mota Lourenço Copyright (c) 2020 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela http://www.usc.es/revistas/index.php/rge/about/submissions#copyrightNotice 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 14 10.15304/rge.29.2.6874 Depopulation, ageing and social policies in Castilla y León https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/6959 <p>Ageing and depopulation are the two main challenges of the demographic issue facing several regions of Spain and Europe. Although ageing can be seen as an achievement of societies, depopulation seems more like a failure. These two phenomena interact with each other, so that depopulation, being driven by low birth rates or the emigration of young people, contributes to a higher rate of elderly people and ageing, in turn, aggravates the problem of depopulation since an ageing population has lower birth rates and eventually increases mortality rates. However this relationship between ageing and depopulation need not be solely in that direction; it is possible, and increasingly seems necessary, for policies geared towards the care of the elderly to help alleviate the problem of depopulation; ageing must be made a key factor in combating the problem of depopulation. The aim of this paper is to show that it is necessary to turn ageing into a challenge to fight the problem of depopulation; especially by means of social policies aimed at the attention of the elderly.</p> José Manuel Díez Modino Ana Pardo Fanjul Copyright (c) 2020 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela http://www.usc.es/revistas/index.php/rge/about/submissions#copyrightNotice 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 18 10.15304/rge.29.2.6959 Population forecast for small areas: estimates for the parishes of five northwestern Spanish provinces https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/7121 <p>This article presents a simple procedure for obtaining demographic projections for small geographic areas. The method presented here is based on assuming that the trends of the areas to be projected will be similar to those observed in previous periods and taking the projections for larger geographic areas as a reference point. In mathematical terms, this technique involves a problem of restricted minimization of the quadratic divergences between the projections obtained and those observed in past periods, where the aggregate demographic projections are taken as a constraint. This proposal fits very well with the present scenario in the case of the demographic projections that the National Institute of Statistics prepares for Spain, where these forecasts are presented at a provincial level but not in any more detail. While these provincial projections are useful for policy planning and the provision of certain services by the public sector, it would be desirable to have them at a more detailed geographical scale at the provincial level. The procedure presented in this paper is illustrated with the case of five provinces in Spain, corresponding to the Autonomous Communities of Asturias and Galicia, in which the population forecasts for those provinces for the year 2033 are broken down to a parish geographical scale.</p> Esteban Fernández Vázquez Fernando Rubiera Morollón Copyright (c) 2020 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela http://www.usc.es/revistas/index.php/rge/about/submissions#copyrightNotice 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 14 10.15304/rge.29.2.7121 Demography and sustainability of the public pension system https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/6917 <p>Public pension systems are one of the basic pillars on which the welfare state in developed countries is based. The recent evolution of its financial statements has questioned its sustainability in the current conditions, and opened the debate on the necessary reforms to guarantee it. In any case, the demographic factors that condition pension spending have a dynamic that is difficult to alter, so it is interesting to analyze their impact on spending, both from a historical perspective and from a future perspective. The different demographic reality of Galicia, with respect to the State as a whole, allows us to deepen this analysis, focusing as well on the parameters related to ageing, in order to adequately assess its impact on the sustainability of the system, - the ultimate aim of this work.</p> Miguel Ángel Vázquez Taín Copyright (c) 2020 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela http://www.usc.es/revistas/index.php/rge/about/submissions#copyrightNotice 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 18 10.15304/rge.29.2.6917 Ukraine’s loss of human capital due to demographic, socio-economic and socio-political crises, 1990-2019 https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/6872 <p>The prosperity of the country's economy is possible only with the continuous accumulation of human capital. The article analyzes the factors influencing the accumulation of human capital in Ukraine during its independence. The article describes initial conditions that characterized the demographic and socio-economic development of Ukraine at the time of her independence. There were determined the criteria of influence on a person’s decision-making on creating a family and getting a job, which in the long run determine the trends in the accumulation of human capital in the country. The most threatening trends of the influence of the demographic, socio-economic, and sociopolitical crisis on the processes of human capital accumulation in Ukraine are revealed. The article analyzes changes in Ukraine's rating among the world’s countries by demographic and socio-economic indicators during 1990-2019.</p> Oksana Zakharova Copyright (c) 2020 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela http://www.usc.es/revistas/index.php/rge/about/submissions#copyrightNotice 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 14 10.15304/rge.29.2.6872 Actions from Public Administration to avoid depopulation of rural areas. What can be done by provincial government and local councils? https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/6723 <p>Rural depopulation in Spain is forever on the increase. The reduction in the number of inhabitants is causing local public administrations to be incapable of providing the quantity and quality of public services needed by the citizenry, which increases the emigration of the population to other areas with more residents. This research identifies some of the actions that can be carried out by different Public Administrations to correct the situation, especially from the local perspective.</p> Alberto Vaquero García Virginia Losa Muñiz Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 14 10.15304/rge.29.2.6723 Regulatory improvement measures as an instrument in the fight against rural depopulation in Galicia https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/6863 <p>The aim of this paper is the analysis of various regulatory improvement measures introduced in the autonomous region of Galicia over the last decade to help mitigate the depopulation of the rural areas by facilitating the establishment of productive activities in areas at risk of depopulation and thus contributing to increasing and maintaining the population there. It includes the study of the new regime of administrative intervention in economic activities in the rural areas, as well as the emergence, together with the traditional policy of restructuring agricultural property, of another public policy aimed at recovering and enhancing the value of productive land which, at the time, is abandoned or under deficient cultivation.</p> Luis Míguez Macho Copyright (c) 2020 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela http://www.usc.es/revistas/index.php/rge/about/submissions#copyrightNotice 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 15 10.15304/rge.29.2.6863 Productive vs. residential economy: Factors behind the recovery of rural areas in socioeconomic decline https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/6744 <p>The analysis and explanation of the diverse rural dynamics might help to design better targeted rural development policies. We focus on Galicia (Spain) as a case study of a region in demographic decline, in order to trace what factors are associated with the recovery of specific rural areas. Since demographic ageing and depopulation are often an inheritance from strong migration processes in the past, and the resulting imbalances, we use a statistical method by Martínez Filgueira, Peón &amp; López Iglesias (2017) to remove the<br>demographic drag due to past migration. We then perform a multivariate statistical analysis that explores the relationship of the municipalities’ population growth beyond the drag with a total of 50 indicators in 10 domains, including territorial, such as infrastructures and remoteness, economic diversification, the profitability of business activities, human capital, and quality of life indicators, such as access to public services and trends of rurbanisation. We obtain mixed results for the dichotomy ‘entrepreneurship<br>versus quality of life’. The main findings are the evidence of agglomeration economies –the distance to the main cities and the size of the county capital– and the positive impact of socio-economic variables such as disposable income and stock of human capital. In addition, we obtain a correspondence between rural areas in recovery and a higher density of companies and self-employment in the services sector.</p> David Peón Pose Xose Manuel Martínez Filgueira Edelmiro López-Iglesias Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 30 10.15304/rge.29.2.6744 Local energy autonomy and sustainable rural development. Analysis of the predisposition to participate in renewable energy communities https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/6914 <p>Renewable Energy Communities (CER) has been postulated in academic literature as a potential source of opportunities for sustainable rural development. The new strategic lines of the Spanish government suggest that they could begin to be encouraged in a more forceful way, making it necessary to analyze the conditions of the predisposition to participate/invest in this type of initiative. Based on the information collected through a survey in a small town in Galicia, we analyzed, using quantitative techniques (principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis), the sociodemographic and sociopsychological characteristics that determine the willingness to participate/invest in a rural CER project. The results reveal that gender, income level and a social capital factor related to trust and cooperation are significant. These results allow us to<br>formulate conclusions and recommendations for researchers, promoters and legislators.</p> María Ángeles López Cabarcos Noelia Romero Castro Vanessa Miramontes Viña Copyright (c) 2020 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela http://www.usc.es/revistas/index.php/rge/about/submissions#copyrightNotice 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 25 10.15304/rge.29.2.6914 Degradation of social institutions and land use: unfolding feedback mechanisms between afforestation with fast-growing species and living conditions in rural areas https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/6909 <p>Evidence of the irreversibility of certain social changes has been accumulating in recent years, but both the processes by which perceptions of irreversibility are formed and the relationships between those elements that feed them remain largely unexplored. This work deals with the contribution of land uses to the creation of liveable rural areas, one of the main socio-economic challenges to be faced. Interviews with 10 experts were conducted in 2016 to collect perceptions among forest owners. Through a Causal Loop Diagram, a model of perceived well-being is developed capturing present dynamics between social and natural subsystems as well as their possibilities for change. The results confirm that variables such as self-efficacy, sense of place, or sense of control underlie a perception of irreversibility and reduce the scope for collective action. The need to consider the population’s perception in designing effective rural policies is underlined.</p> Helena Martínez-Cabrera Gonzalo Rodríguez- Rodríguez Hugo M. Ballesteros Copyright (c) 2020 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela http://www.usc.es/revistas/index.php/rge/about/submissions#copyrightNotice 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 18 10.15304/rge.29.2.6909 The use of rural areas in Portugal: Historical perspective and the new trends https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/6750 <p>The Portuguese landscape and its rural areas are the result of thousands of years of human presence, particularly since the late nineteenth century, when protectionist public policies were put in place to promote food self-sufficiency. During the Estado Novo regime, four main agricultural policies were enforced: wheat campaigns, internal colonization, agricultural hydraulic systems and reforestation. Nevertheless, there was a massive rural exodus, starting mainly in the 1960s, which resulted in the depopulation of 80 per cent of the territory. Nowadays, less than 20 per cent of the Portuguese population inhabits interior regions. This demographic change presents huge socio-economic challenges. Recently there have been new trends, based on land concentration and super intensive monoculture, which are incompatible with central and local governments’ policies and strategies to reverse depopulation. The sustainability of Portugal’s rural world, its landscape and the quality of life of its population are at risk. Four items were identified in this article: eucalyptus and pine forests, olive plantations, greenhouses and mining.</p> Maria Antónia Almeida Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 17 10.15304/rge.29.2.6750 Strategies for territorial development and tourism against the depopulation of rural areas in Sardinia (Italy) https://revistas.usc.gal/index.php/rge/article/view/6908 <p>The depopulation of rural areas is a problem for many European regions, including Sardinia (Italy), where several villages are in danger of disappearing. Different policies are being implemented to strengthen their competitiveness, and this paper aims to highlight the opportunities offered using various strategies. Therefore, the main territorial development projects promoted in Sardinia and the role of tourism in the search to make rural areas more attractive will be analysed. All the data will be treated with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Research confirms that rural areas, despite being rich in cultural, environmental and historical resources, have been unable to exploit them as well as they could for tourism purposes. However, there are several funds that can be used, and, in the conclusions, some useful considerations are given to make these areas more attractive to tourists and try to halt the demographic decline.</p> Salvatore Lampreu Copyright (c) 2020 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela http://www.usc.es/revistas/index.php/rge/about/submissions#copyrightNotice 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 29 2 1 20 10.15304/rge.29.2.6908