Main Article Content

Helena Martínez-Cabrera
Universidade de Santiago de Compostela – Facultade de Ciencias Económicas e Empresariais
Gonzalo Rodríguez- Rodríguez
Universidade de Santiago de Compostela – Facultade de Ciencias Económicas e Empresariais
Hugo M. Ballesteros
Universidade de Santiago de Compostela – Facultade de Ciencias Económicas e Empresariais
Vol 29 No 2 (2020): Special Issue. Socio-economic challenges of demographic change, Articles, pages 1-18
Submitted: 30-05-2020 Accepted: 01-10-2020 Published: 16-10-2020
Copyright How to Cite


Evidence of the irreversibility of certain social changes has been accumulating in recent years, but both the processes by which perceptions of irreversibility are formed and the relationships between those elements that feed them remain largely unexplored. This work deals with the contribution of land uses to the creation of liveable rural areas, one of the main socio-economic challenges to be faced. Interviews with 10 experts were conducted in 2016 to collect perceptions among forest owners. Through a Causal Loop Diagram, a model of perceived well-being is developed capturing present dynamics between social and natural subsystems as well as their possibilities for change. The results confirm that variables such as self-efficacy, sense of place, or sense of control underlie a perception of irreversibility and reduce the scope for collective action. The need to consider the population’s perception in designing effective rural policies is underlined.

Cited by

Article Details


Adger, W., y Jordan, A. (2009). Sustainability: Exploring the processes and outcomes of governance. En W. Adger e A. Jordan (Eds.), Governing sustainability (pp. 3-31). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Axencia Galega de Desenvolvemento Rural. (2011). Plan de zona rural de As Mariñas. Provincia de Lugo. Santiago de Compostela: Xunta de Galicia, AGADER. Recuperado de:

Ares-López, D. (2017). Cultures of nature in mid-twentieth-century Galicia. En J. A. Losada y B. Sampedro (Eds.), Re-routing Galician studies. Multidisciplinary interventions (pp. 57-71). Cham, Suiza: Palgrave Macmillan.

Benford, R., y Snow, D. (2000). Framing processes and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 26(1), 611-639. DOI:

Berkes, F. (2010). Shifting perspectives on resource management: Resilience and the reconceptualization of 'natural resources' and 'management'. Maritime Studies, 9(1), 13-40. Recuperado de:

Bixler, R. (2014). From community forest management to polycentric governance: Assessing evidence from the bottom up. Society and Natural Resources, 27(2), 155-169. DOI:

Bousquet, F., et al. (2016). Resilience and development: Mobilizing for transformation. Ecology and Society, 21(3). DOI:

Charmaz, K. (2005). Grounded theory in the 21st century. Applications for advancing social justice studies. En N. Denzin e I. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (pp. 507-536). Thousand Oaks, CA / London, UK / New Delhi, India: SAGE.

Cidrás, D., Lois-González, R. C., y Paül, V. (2018). Rural governance against eucalyptus expansion in Galicia (NW Iberian Peninsula). Sustainability, 10(10), 3396. DOI:

Corbelle, E., y Crecente Maseda, R. (2014). Urbanización, forestación y abandono. Cambios recientes en el paisaje de Galicia, 1985-2005. Revista Galega de Economía, 23(1), 35-52. Recuperado de:

Drury, J., y Reicher, S. (1999). The intergroup dynamics of collective empowerment: Substantiating the social identity model of crowd behavior. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 2(4), 381-402. DOI:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2020). Global forest resources assessment 2020: Main report. Rome, Italy: FAO. DOI:

Fischer, J,. et al. (2015). Advancing sustainability through mainstreaming a social-ecological systems perspective. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 14, 144-149. DOI:

Foster, M. (2014). The relationship between collective action and well-being and its moderators: Pervasiveness of discrimination and dimensions of action. Sex Roles, 70(5-6), 165-182. DOI:

Franklin, J., Johnson, K., y Johnson, D. (2018). Ecological forest management. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

Garud, R., Kumaraswamy, A., y Karnøe, P. (2010). Path dependence or path creation? Journal of Management Studies, 47(4), 760-774. DOI:

Ghazoul, J., Butler, R., Mateo-Vega, J., y Koh, L. (2010). REDD: A reckoning of environment and development implications. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25(7), 396-402. DOI:

González Tato, R., et al. (2013). La certificación FSC de agrupaciones de minifundios forestales de la comarca del Ortegal. 6º Congreso Forestal Español – 6CFE01-443. Montes: Servicios y desarrollo rural. Vitoria-Gasteiz (España), 10-14 de junio de 2013. Palencia: Sociedad Española de Ciencias Forestales. Recuperado de:

Hartig, T., Mitchell, R., de Vries, S., y Frumkin, H. (2014). Nature and health. Annual Review of Public Health, 35(1), 207-228. DOI:

Instituto Galego de Estatística. (2013). Análise da cadea forestal-madeira. Santiago de Compostela: Xunta de Galicia, IGE. Recuperado de:

Jasper, J. (2017). The doors that culture opened: Parallels between social movement studies and social psychology. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 20(3), 285-302. DOI:

Jost, J., y van der Toorn, J. (2012). System justification theory. En J. Jost y J. van der Toorn (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (pp. 313-343). Thousand Oaks, CA / London, UK / New Delhi, India: SAGE. Recuperado de:

López Iglesias, E. (2012). A gobernanza e xestión do medio rural galego a comezos do século XXI; reflexións e propostas para o debate. En R. Rodríguez González (Coord.), Galicia, un mundo rural vivo (pp. 130-147). Universidade Internacional Menéndez Pelayo / Concello de Lalín. Recuperado de:

Louis, W. R., et al. (2016). Causality in the study of collective action and political behaviour. En F. M. Moghaddam y R. Harré (Eds.), Causes and consequences: A multidisciplinary exploration (pp. 277-302). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Mannarini, T., Talò, C., y Gelli, B. (2014). Sense of community, empowerment and social action. An analysis across political orientations. Psicología Política, 48, 7-24. Recuperado de:

Marey-Pérez, M.F., Díaz-Varela, E., y Calvo-González, A. (2014). Does higher owner participation increase conflicts over common land? An analysis of communal forests in Galicia (Spain). IFores-Biogeosciences and Forestry, 8(4), 533-543. DOI:

Marey-Pérez, M. F., Rodríguez Vicente, V., y Crecente Maseda, R. (2007). Perfil del propietario individual en Galicia: objetivos y prácticas de gestión en el noreste de la comunidad. Revista Galega de Economía, 16(1), 1-14. Recuperado de:

Martínez-Cabrera, H., y Rodríguez Rodríguez, G. (Dir.). (2016). Sentimento de lugar e eucaliptos: unha aproximación interdisciplinar ao estado do monte en Galicia. (Trabajo Fin de Máster en Desarrollo Económico e Innovación, Curso 2015-2016). Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Recuperado de:

Masterson, V., Enqvist, J., Stedman, R., y Tengö, M. (2019). Sense of place in social–ecological systems: From theory to empirics. Sustainability Science, 14(3), 555-564. DOI:

McDermott, M., Mahanty, S., y Schreckenberg, K. (2013). Examining equity: A multidimensional framework for assessing equity in payments for ecosystem services. Environmental Science and Policy, 33, 416-427. DOI:

Nussbaum, M. (2011). Capabilities, entitlements, rights: Supplementation and critique. Journal of Human Deve- lopment and Capabilities, 12(1), 23-37. DOI:

O’Riordan, T. (2009). Reflections on the pathways to sustainability. En W. Adger y A. Jordan (Eds.), Governing sustainability (pp. 307-328). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. DOI:

Ostrom, E. (2010). Polycentric systems for coping with collective action and global environmental change. Global Environmental Change, 20, 550-557. DOI:

Picos Martín, J. (2015). O sector forestal en Galicia: problemática actual e perspectivas futuras. Documento 10/2015. Ourense: Foro Económico de Galicia. Recuperado de:

Pols, A., y Romijn, H. (2017). Evaluating irreversible social harms. Policy Sciences, 50(3), 495-551. DOI:

Prno, J., y Scott Slocombe, D. (2012). Exploring the origins of 'social license to operate' in the mining sector: Perspectives from governance and sustainability theories. Resources Policy, 37(3), 346-357. DOI:

Rozzi, R., et al. (2018). From biocultural homogenization to biocultural conservation: A conceptual framework to reorient society toward sustainability of life. En R. Rozzi et al. (Eds.), From biocultural homogeneization to biocultural conservation (pp. 1-17). Basel, Switzerland: Springer Nature.

Stedman, R. (1999). Sense of place as an indicator of community sustainability. The Forestry Chronicle, 75(5), 765-770. DOI:

Stedman, R. (2002). Toward a social psychology of place. Environment and Behavior, 34(5), 561-581. DOI:

Stedman, R. (2003). Is it really just a social construction?: The contribution of the physical environment to sense of place. Society and Natural Resources, 16(8), 671-685. DOI:

Sterman, J. (2000). Business dynamics: Systems thinking and modeling for a complex world. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Thomas, E., y Louis, W. (2014). When will collective action be effective? Violent and non-violent protests differentially influence perceptions of legitimacy and efficacy among sympathizers. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(2), 263-276. DOI:

Ullman, J., y Bentler, P. (2012). Structural equation modeling. En J. Ullman y P. Bentler (Eds.), Handbook of psychology, Second Edition (pp. 293-325). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

van der Toorn, J., et al. (2015). A sense of powerlessness fosters system justification: Implications for the legitimation of authority, hierarchy, and government. Political Psychology, 36(1), 93-110. DOI:

van Stekelenburg, J., Klandermans, B., y van Dijk, W. (2009). Context matters: Explaining how and why mobilizing context influences motivational dynamics. Journal of Social Issues, 65(4), 815-838. DOI:

van Stekelenburg, J., Klandermans, B., y van Dijk, W. (2011). Integrando la motivación y la emoción: la dinámica de la motivación para la participación en la protesta. Revista de Psicologia Social, 26(1), 91-104. DOI:

van Zomeren, M., y Louis, W. (2017). Culture meets collective action: Exciting synergies and some lessons to learn for the future. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 20(3), 277-284. DOI:

Vergragt, P., y Quist, J. (2011). Backcasting for sustainability: Introduction to the special issue. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 78(5), 747-755. DOI:

Wyborn, C., y Bixler, R. P. (2013). Collaboration and nested environmental governance: Scale dependency, scale framing, and cross-scale interactions in collaborative conservation. Journal of Environmental Management, 123, 58-67. DOI: