Main Article Content

Deepak Kumar Behera
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology Patna (An Institute under MHRD, Govt. of India)
Vol 25 No 2 (2016), Articles, pages 117-132
Submitted: 18-11-2016 Accepted: 18-11-2016 Published: 18-11-2016
Copyright How to Cite


One of the challenges to the National Statistical Systems worldwide is to capture
the indicators of socio-economic progress from the current available framework. The limits
of traditional indicators provide little insights about the extent of well being realised in the
society, since there is no automatic link between growth and development which aims at
improving human and social welfare. Therefore, different countries had tried various
approaches to measure their progress of the society. India’s experience with measuring
progress in the society ranges from computation of composite index to adoption of a
development strategy that emphasises human welfare and well-being of the society as
central to all development planning. In this connection, this paper limits its scope to some of
the challenges and possibilities in the Indian system for developing the indicators of social
Cited by

Article Details


Alejandro Adler Braun (2009), “Gross National Happiness in Bhutan: A Living Example of an Alternative Approach to Progress”, Wharton Research Scholars Journal, University of Pennsylvania Scholarly Commons.

Aggarwal, Yash (2003), ‘Revitalisation of Educational Statistics in India- Issues and Strategies’, National University of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi, Available at

Baster, N., (1972), “Development Indicators: An Introduction”, in Baster,N. (eds) ‘Measuring Development: The Role and Adequacy of Development Indicators’, Frank Cass and company Ltd., London.

Becker, R. A., L. Denby, R.McGill and A. R.Wilks (1987), ‘Analysis of data from the Places Rated Almanac’, The American Statistician, August 1987, Volume 41, No. 3, pp. 169–186.

Central Statistical Organisation (2008), “Selected socio-economic statistics”, Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation, Government of India.

Challenges for Analysis of the Economy, the Businesses, and Social Progress’, in Peter Kovacs et. al edited Abstract Book, Hungarian Central Statistical Office, Universitas Szeged Press, Szeged, 2009.

Dash, Jogeswar (2009), ‘Social statistics in India: Challenges and New Initiatives’, Central Statistical Organisation, Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation, Government of India, Available at

Diener, Ed and Eunkook Suh (1997), ‘Measuring Quality of Life: Economic, Social, and Subjective Indicators’, Social Indicators Research, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.

EESC (2009), ‘GDP and beyond – Measuring progress in a changing world’, Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament, Commission of European Committees, Brussels, 20 August 2009, Available at

EESC (2010), ‘GDP and beyond – Measuring progress in a changing world’, Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on the Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament, European Economic and Social Committee, Brussels, 29 April 2010, NAT/SDO/453 - CESE 647/2010, Available at

‘Enhancing the Visibility and image of Statistical Agencies – Experience of India’, Eighth Management Seminar for the Heads of NSO in Asia and the Pacific, 3-5 November, 2009, Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, Available at

Giovannini, Enrico, Jon Hall and Marco Mira d'Ercole (2008), ‘Measuring Well-Being and Societal Progress’, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Available at

Goyal, Ashima (2007), ‘Data and Definitions: Underestimating Savings and Investment in an Open Economy’, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, October 2007, Available at

Gruen, David and Joann Wilkie (2009), ‘New paradigms to measure progress’, 3rd OECD World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policy, Busan, on 28 October 2009.

Heylighen F. & Bernheim J. (2001), "Measuring Global Progress Through Subjective WellBeing", in: Proceedings of the III Conference of the ISQOLS, University of Girona Press.

Hicks,N.and Streeten, P. (1979), “Indicators of Development: The Search for a Basic Needs Yardstick”, World Development, vol.7, no.6 (p.567-580).

Hoegen, Monika (2009), ‘Statistics and the quality of life: Measuring progress – a world beyond GDP”, InWEnt Centre for Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics, Invent Capacity Building International, on behalf of Federal Ministry of Cooperation and Development, Germany.

Millennium Development Goals, India Country Report 2007, Central Statistical Organization, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India,

Mira, Marco d’Ercole (2009), ‘Alternative models of measuring progress’, ETUI Conference on Beyond the crisis: Developing sustainable alternatives, Brussels, 10 – 11 September 2009.

New Economic Foundation (2009), “Happy Planet Index 2.0” The reports available at:

Osberg, Lars (2001), ‘Needs and Wants: What is Social Progress and how should it be measured?’, The Review of Economic Performance and Social Progress, Edited by Keith Banting, Andrew Sharpe and France St-Hilaire, Volume 1, June 2001.

Pesendorfer, Konrad (2010), ‘Measuring Progress of Societies in Official Statistics’, United Nations, Vienna 14 October 2010.

Planning Commission (2013), “Twelfth Five year plan: Faster, More Inclusive and Sustainable Growth”, Vol-I & II, Government of India.

Planning Commission (2011), “Measuring Progress in the Society-India Country Paper”, presented in the 15th Conference of Commonwealth Statisticians at New Delhi, 7-10 February.

Radermacher, Walter (2010), a Keynote Speech on Measuring prosperity and quality of life, Austrian Federal Ministry of Finance in Vienna, May 2010.

Rawls, J. (1971), ‘A Theory of J ustice’, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Report of The Group for Examining Discrepancy in PFCE Estimates from NSSO Consumer Expenditure Data and Estimates Compiled by National Accounts Division, Central Statistical Organisation, Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation, Government of India, January 2008.

Rust, Christa (2009), ‘Measuring Progress, Strengthening Governance and Promoting Positive Change- Developing sustainability indicators with Winnipeg’s urban First Nations community’, International Institute for Sustainable Development, Canada, January 2009.

Schreiner, Mark (2008), ‘Progress out of Poverty Index- A Simple Poverty Scorecard for India’, Grameen Foundation, July 7, 2008.

Sen, A. K. (1989), ‘Development as Capability Expansion’, Journal of Development Planning, Vol. 19, pp 41-58, reprinted in S. Fukuda-Parr and A. K.

Shiva Kumar (eds) (2003) Readings in Human Development, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sen, A.K., Joseph, E. Stiglitz and Fitaussi Paul (2009), Report of the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. See.

Sojo, Eduardo and Inegi Mexico (2009), ‘Challenges for the Implementation of Better Indicators of Social Progress’, The 3rd OECD World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policy, 27-30 October, 2009.

Stern, Scott; Amy Wares and Sarah Orzell (2015), “Social Progress Index 2015 Methodological Report”, Social Progress Imperative, USA.

United Nations (2001), ‘Road map towards the implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration’, Report of the Secretary-General, Fifty-sixth session, General Assembly, 6 September 2001. See.

United Nations (2002), ‘Statistical system in India’, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and The Pacific, Bangkok, 9-11 October 2002.

United Nations (2003), ‘Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals- Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources’, Department of Economic and Social Affairs– Statistics Division, ST/ESA/STAT/SER.F/95,

United Nations Publication, New York. United Nations (2006), ‘Statistical Challenges in Assessing the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and Other Internationally Agreed Development Goals’, Committee on Poverty Reduction, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and The Pacific,

United Nations Economic and Social Council, Third Session, 20 October 2006. See

United Nations (2010), ‘Historical Perspective of Official Statistics in India’, United Nations Statistics Division, United Nations, New York

United Nations Development Programme (2010), “Human Development Report 2010- 20th Anniversary Edition- The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development”